A pharaoh is a king of ancient Egypt, in North Africa.

The first pharaoh was called Narmer. 5,000 years ago, he united the northern and southern parts of Egypt and made them into one country.

Then, hundreds of pharaohs succeeded him. Some of them are still very famous today, like Cheops, Tutankhamun, and Ramses II…

Some women also ruled ancient Egypt. Cleopatra, for example, the last queen of Egypt, lived 2000 years ago.

But how did pharaohs live?

The pharaoh lived in a luxurious palace, where he was highly respected.

The Egyptians considered him as a representative of their gods on earth.

He had all the power. He decided the policy of the country and led the army.

His power was symbolized by his crown, his whip and his scepter. He also often wore a false beard, which was sacred.

As a religious leader, the pharaoh performed many rituals to pay homage to the gods. In the temples, the priests were under his orders.

When the pharaoh died, he was most often succeeded by his son.

The priests mummified his body, then placed his sarcophagus in a pyramid. The Egyptians thought this allowed the pharaoh to have an eternal life after his death.

They then considered that he had become a true god, and venerated him.